St. Pauli Elbtunnel opened in 1911 and is a combined pedestrian and vehicle tunnel in Hamburg, Germany. The over 400-meter-long tunnel was a technical sensation in the early 1900. The need for refurbishment has reached this amazing tunnel in Hamburg.
Life cycle and life cycle costs (LCC) aspects becomes more important and especially for complex tunnels with a high operation costs and challenges to keep open 24/7. Its important to consider these aspects in the planning and the design of the tunnel, and make sure this is a part of the evaluation of the different alternatives.